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Avian Influenza Virus

Avian Influenza Virus PDF Author: Erica Spackman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1588299392
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 147

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Book Description
With the growing global fear of a major pandemic, avian influenza (AI) virus research has greatly increased in importance. In Avian Influenza Virus, an expert team of researchers and diagnosticians examine the fundamental, yet essential, virological methods for AI virus research and diagnostics as well as some of the newest molecular procedures currently used for basic and applied research. They present exciting, cutting-edge new methods that focus both on studying the virus itself and on work with avian hosts, an area greatly lacking in research.

Avian Influenza Virus

Avian Influenza Virus PDF Author: Erica Spackman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1588299392
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 147

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Book Description
With the growing global fear of a major pandemic, avian influenza (AI) virus research has greatly increased in importance. In Avian Influenza Virus, an expert team of researchers and diagnosticians examine the fundamental, yet essential, virological methods for AI virus research and diagnostics as well as some of the newest molecular procedures currently used for basic and applied research. They present exciting, cutting-edge new methods that focus both on studying the virus itself and on work with avian hosts, an area greatly lacking in research.

Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Influenza Virus

Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Influenza Virus PDF Author: Peter Lydyard
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 1136986766
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 24

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Book Description
Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Influenza virus presents the natural history of this infection from point of entry of the pathogen through pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. A set of core questions explores the nature, causation, host response, manifestations, and management of this infectious process. This case also includes summary bullet points, questions and answers, and references.

Influenza Virus and Vaccination

Influenza Virus and Vaccination PDF Author: Marta L. DeDiego
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3039288172
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 130

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Book Description
The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

Influenza Virus Vaccines and Immunotherapies

Influenza Virus Vaccines and Immunotherapies PDF Author: Arun Kumar
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889198111
Category : Electronic book
Languages : en
Pages : 187

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Book Description
Influenza virus infections lead to thousands of deaths worldwide annually and billions of dollars economic burden. Despite continuing advances in our understanding of the immune evasion mechanism, the disease remains one of the foremost threat for human being. Traditional vaccines (attenuated and inactivated) mainly provide protection by inducing virus neutralizing antibodies, targeting ever changing surface antigens: Haemagultinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Due to genetic shift and immune selection pressure, prevalence of circulating influenza virus subtypes changes every year. Therefore, mismatch between circulating strain and vaccine strain can critically affect the success rate of these conventional flu vaccines, and requires continuous monitoring of circulating influenza virus subtypes and change in the vaccine formulations accordingly. The collective limitations of existing flu vaccines urgently call for the development of a novel universal vaccines that might provide the required protective immunity to a range of influenza virus subtypes. New approaches are being investigated mainly targeting conserved regions of flu proteins. Some of these approaches include universally conserved epitopes of HA, nucleoprotein (NP), capsid protein (M1) and ion channel protein (M2) that induced strong immune responses in animal models. Some attention and progress appears to be focused on vaccines based on the M2 ectodomain (M2e) employing a variety of constructs, adjuvants and delivery systems, including M2e-hepatitis B core antigen, flagellin constructs, and virus-like particles (VLP). Animal studies with these M2e candidate vaccines demonstrated that these vaccine candidates can prevent severe illness and death but not infection, which may pose difficulties in both the evaluation of clinical efficacy and approval by the regulatory authorities. VLP vaccines appear to be promising, but still are mostly limited to animal studies. The discovery and development of new and improved vaccines have been greatly facilitated by the application of new technologies. The use of nucleic acid-based vaccines, to combine the benefits of in-situ expression of antigens with the safety of inactivated and subunit vaccines, has been a key advancement. Upon their discovery more than 20 years ago, nucleic acid vaccines promised to be a safe and effective mean to mimic immunization with a live organism vaccine, particularly for induction of T cell immunity. In addition, the manufacturing of nucleic acid-based vaccines offered the potential to be relatively simple, inexpensive and generic. Reverse Vaccinology and in-silico designing of vaccines are very innovative approaches and being considered as future of vaccines. Furthermore, various immuno-therapeutic agents also being developed to treat and minimize immuno-pathological damage in patients suffering from life threatening complications. For the treatment of such pathological conditions, various novel approaches such as administration of immune suppressive cytokines, blocking co-stimulatory signals or activating co-inhibitory signal of T cell activation, are being tested both in lab and clinics. The Research Topic on influenza virus vaccine and therapeutics will give an insight in to the current status and future scope of these new innovative approaches and technologies. Moreover, these new methods will also serve as a reference tool for the development of future vaccines against several other pathogens.

The Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin

The Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin PDF Author: W.G. Laver
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709141303
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 259

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Sandoz Symposium

The Swine Flu Affair

The Swine Flu Affair PDF Author: Richard E. Neustadt; Harvey V. Fineberg; Joseph A. Califano, Jr
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans

Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans PDF Author: Sanjay Kapoor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319055127
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 222

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Book Description
This book provides salient information on all aspects of influenza/flu viruses affecting animals and humans. It specifically reviews the properties and replication of influenza viruses; their evolution and emergence; epidemiology; role of migratory birds in disease transmission; clinical signs in humans, animals and poultry; pathogenesis and pathogenicity; public health importance and potential threats; diagnosis; prevention and control measures; and pandemic preparedness. Influenza/flu viruses evolve continuously and jump species causing epidemics as well as pandemics in both human and animals. During the past 150 years, various strains of influenza virus like the Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, bird flu and swine flu were responsible for high mortality in humans as well as birds. High mutation rates, antigenic shifts, drifts, reassortment phenomena, and the development of antiviral drug resistance all contribute to ineffective chemotherapy and vaccines against influenza viruses. Due to their devastating nature, high zoonotic implications and high mortality in humans and poultry, they have a severe impact on the socioeconomic status of countries. Disease awareness, rapid and accurate diagnosis, surveillance, strict biosecurity, timely adoption of appropriate preventive and control measures and pandemic preparedness are crucial to help reduce virus transmission, thus reducing clinical cases, deaths and pandemic threats.

The Influenza Viruses

The Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Robert M. Krug
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461308119
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 450

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Book Description
Influenza virus is an important human pathogen, frequently causing widespread disease and a significant loss of life. Much has been learned about the structure of the virus, its genetic variation, its mode of gene expression and replication, and its interaction with the host immu nologic system. This knowledge has the potential of leading to ap proaches for the control of influenza virus. In addition, research on influ enza virus has led to important advances in eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology and in immunology. A major focus of this book is the molecular biology of influenza virus. The first chapter, which serves as an introduction, describes the structure of each of the genomic RNA segments and their encoded pro teins. The second chapter discusses the molecular mechanisms involved in the expression and replication of the viral genome. In addition to other subjects, this chapter deals with one of the most distinctive features of influenza virus, namely the unique mechanism whereby viral messenger RNA synthesis is initiated by primers deaved from newly synthesized host-cell RNAs in the nudeus. Among the most significant accomplish ments in influenza virus research has been the delineation of the three dimensional structure of the two surface glycoproteins of the virus, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. This has provided a structural basis for mapping both the antigenic sites and the regions involved in the major biological functions of these two molecules.

Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses

Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Debi P. Nayak
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483274748
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 694

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Book Description
Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses documents the proceedings of ICN-UCLA symposium held in Salt Lake City, Utah, 8-13 March 1981. The symposium brought together people from different disciplines working with the common objective of reducing the ravages of influenza and to expose them to the totality of the problem of influenza. The papers presented at the meeting included nearly all major aspects of influenza in which important advances are being made. Because of recombinant DNA technology and rapid DNA sequencing, a number of genes of influenza virus from a number of strains have been either completely or partially sequenced. Among these, the gene coding for hemagglutinin (HA) has been most intensively studied and the HA of one or more strains from each subtype (H1, H2, H3) has been completely sequenced. Other topics discussed include the question of drift and shift at the genomic level; the role of the capped host mRNA is the process of initiation of transcription; and the regulation of viral transcription. This volume also includes papers presented by the speakers of the plenary sessions and that of keynote speaker, Sir Charles Stuart-Harris as well as the selected papers presented in the poster sessions.

Epidemiology of Avian Influenza Viruses

Epidemiology of Avian Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Irene Iglesias
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889459942
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 133

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Book Description
Avian influenza is a highly contagious viral disease, characterized by intense circulation in the wild waterbird reservoirs, with periodical introductions into the domestic poultry sector. AI viruses have been the source of devastating economic losses in the poultry industry over the last three decades, and have become a major veterinary and public health concern due to their zoonotic potential. The most emblematic illustration of this impact has been the emergence of the HPAI H5N1 virus in southern China in the mid-1990s, followed by its continental spread across East and Southeast Asia, and the unprecedented epidemics recorded in 2003–2004. More recently (from 2014 to 2017), several subtypes of HPAI (including H5N1, H5N6, H5N8) emerged in East Asia and spread intercontinentally, stressing the crucial role of this geographical hotspot as a source of new HPAI subtypes. The international dimension and the difficulty to effectively control those epidemics highlight the need for a global approach to HPAI surveillance and a comprehensive knowledge on epidemiology and patterns of the disease. This Research Topic aims at contributing to fill this gap. It includes ten papers which supplement the knowledge of the epidemiology of AI and offer new approaches on control strategies in various regions of the world.