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Influenza Virus and Vaccination

Influenza Virus and Vaccination PDF Author: Marta L. DeDiego
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3039288172
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 130

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Book Description
The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

Influenza Virus and Vaccination

Influenza Virus and Vaccination PDF Author: Marta L. DeDiego
Publisher: MDPI
ISBN: 3039288172
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 130

View

Book Description
The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

Influenza Virus and Vaccination

Influenza Virus and Vaccination PDF Author: Marta L. DeDiego
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783039288182
Category : Immunologic diseases. Allergy
Languages : en
Pages : 130

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Book Description
The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

Immunity in Turkeys to Four Experimental Type A Influenza Virus Vaccines

Immunity in Turkeys to Four Experimental Type A Influenza Virus Vaccines PDF Author: Elvira Escolastica Diaz
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 74

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Book Description


Influenza

Influenza PDF Author: George Dehner
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 0822977850
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 352

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Book Description
In 1976, the outbreak of a new strain of swine flu at the Fort Dix, New Jersey, army base prompted an unprecedented inoculation campaign. Some forty-two million Americans were vaccinated as the National Influenza Immunization Program hastened to prevent a pandemic, while the World Health Organization (WHO) took a wait-and-see approach. Fortunately, the virus did not spread, and only one death occurred. But instead of being lauded, American actions were subsequently denounced as a "fiasco" and instigator of mass panic. In Influenza, George Dehner examines the wide disparity in national and international responses to influenza pandemics, from the Russian flu of 1889 to the swine flu outbreak in 2009. He chronicles the technological and institutional progress made along the way and shows how these developments can shape an effective future policy. Early pandemic response relied on methods of quarantine and individual scientific research. In the aftermath of World War II, a consensus for cooperation and shared resources led to the creation of the WHO, under the auspices of the United Nations. Today, the WHO maintains a large and proactive role in responding to influenza outbreaks. International pandemic response, however, is only as strong as its weakest national link--most recently evidenced in the failed early detection of the 2009 swine flu in Mexico and the delayed reporting of the 2002 SARS outbreak in China. As Dehner's study contends, the hard lessons of the past highlight the need for a coordinated early warning system with full disclosure, shared technologies, and robust manufacturing capabilities. Until the "national" aspect can be removed from the international equation, responses will be hampered, and a threat to an individual remains a threat to all.

Immunization Safety Review

Immunization Safety Review PDF Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309090865
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 190

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Book Description
Infection with the influenza virus can have a serious effect on the health of people of all ages, although it is particularly worrisome for infants, the elderly, and people with underlying heart or lung problems. A vaccine exists (the “flu†shot) that can greatly decrease the impact of influenza. Because the strains of virus that are expected to cause serious illness and death are slightly different every year, the vaccine is also slightly different every year and it must be given every year, unlike other vaccines. The Immunization Safety Review committee reviewed the data on influenza vaccine and neurological conditions and concluded that the evidence favored rejection of a causal relationship between influenza vaccines and exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. For the other neurological conditions studied, the committee concluded the evidence about the effects of influenza vaccine is inadequate to accept or reject a causal relationship. The committee also reviewed theories on how the influenza vaccine could damage the nervous system. The evidence was at most weak that the vaccine could act in humans in ways that could lead to these neurological problems.

Immunization Abstracts & Bibliography

Immunization Abstracts & Bibliography PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Immunization
Languages : en
Pages :

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Cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination.

Cost effectiveness of influenza vaccination. PDF Author:
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1428924434
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Better Protection from Influenza in the Elderly with a Plant-derived Virus-like Particle Vaccine

Better Protection from Influenza in the Elderly with a Plant-derived Virus-like Particle Vaccine PDF Author: Breanna Hodgins
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
"Influenza virus infections are a major public health threat and worldwide epidemics cause 3-5 million cases of severe illness and 250,000-500,000 deaths every year, including 300-600 fatal cases in Canada. Influenza-associated complications and deaths mainly occur in the elderly. Adults >65 years of age often have age-associated immune defects (immunosenescence) that partly explain their poor response to available influenza vaccines. The efficacy of even the vaccines recommended for the elderly is far from optimal. It is therefore important to develop new vaccines that can provide better protection for this vulnerable population. Many studies suggest that vaccines based on virus-like-particles (VLPs) can stimulate both cellular and humoral responses compared to the detergent-split, inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) that elicit primarily a humoral response. Medicago Inc. (Quebec, QC) has developed a candidate influenza vaccine based on plant-made VLPs expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of influenza viruses on their surface. Nothing was known about how this vaccine would act in the elderly but older subjects likely rely more on cellular than humoral immunity for protection. After developing an aged mouse model for vaccination and challenge, our first goal was to characterize the immune response and protection levels of one dose of the VLP candidate compared to IIV in young (6-8 weeks) and healthy aged mice (16-20 months of age). We demonstrated that the old mice were better protected with the VLP candidate compared to IIV despite low/absent anti-HA antibody titres. To make our mouse model more relevant to the elderly, we aged the mice close to the end of their natural life-span and assessed the immunogenicity of the VLPs (versus IIV) in the presence of natural occurring comorbidities. Again, we demonstrated that the VLP candidate was superior to IIV and that those with fewer comorbidities tended to mount a more robust immune response. Because VLPs have the flexibility to be given at different anatomical sites, we explored different routes and schedules of administration of the VLP candidate vaccine and showed that some of these alternate vaccination strategies could strongly influence both the magnitude and the pattern of the immune response in the aged mice. Delivery of the VLP by intramuscular (IM) and intranasal (IN) simultaneously led to better protection and a more balanced cellular and humoral response. To further characterize the effectiveness of these alternate vaccination strategies, we developed a frailty assessment based on 29 parameters and applied it in our aged mouse model after vaccination and challenge. We found that the animals given simultaneous IM+IN vaccination had the lowest increases in frailty after infection compared to other strategies and IIV. Overall these studies demonstrate that the plant-derived VLP vaccines can elicit a balanced immune response in aged mice and provide better protection against influenza challenge both in terms of frailty and survival. These observations strongly suggest that both the superior flexibility and immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine may confer an advantage in the elderly. " --

Influenza: Complete Spectrum - II - ECAB

Influenza: Complete Spectrum - II - ECAB PDF Author: M. Indrashekhar Rao
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 8131232573
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 94

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Book Description
Influenza: Complete Spectrum – II is published in continuation with the Influenza: Complete Spectrum – I, and the second part converges on the clinical aspect of influenza. It also covers the various influenza immunization programs and policies being run in India to prevent and decrease the incidence of influenza and its complications among children and adults. The course of influenza is mild and self-limited. However, serious complications leading to morbidity and death occur, especially in those with underlying chronic illnesses. The book covers very well the complications and prognosis of influenza. The publication details out why, how, and when influenza vaccination should be exercised in children and adults especially keeping in mind the recent pandemic of H1N1. The book also has a chapter designated to the management of influenza which not only covers antivirals but also the other aspects of managing a patient of influenza and preventing its spread. The authors of the book have also elaborated on the present vis-à-vis future aspects related to influenza vaccine, an often ignored part of influenza management. Discussing complications and prognosis of influenza Describing influenza vaccination for adults and children Understanding the management and prevention of influenza Throwing some light on critical appraise of various immunization programs and policies run for influenza in India Understanding current gap in effective vaccination and management practices for influenza and how to bridge the same in future

A Study of H5n1-M2e-Based Universal Influenza Vaccine

A Study of H5n1-M2e-Based Universal Influenza Vaccine PDF Author: Ho-Chuen Leung
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
ISBN: 9781361368862
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
This dissertation, "A Study of H5N1-M2e-based Universal Influenza Vaccine" by Ho-chuen, Leung, 梁浩銓, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) may be an ideal candidate in the development of influenza universal vaccine due to its highly conserved property among different subtypes/strains of influenza virus. M2e based vaccines have been extensively studied and potent cross-subtype/strain protections have been reported. However, more and more M2e mutants of influenza virus have been identified in recent years. It is still unclear whether M2e based vaccines are effective against these M2e mutants of influenza virus. This study first evaluated cross-protection of an M2e tetrameric peptide vaccine based on H5N1 virus strain A/Vietnam/1194/04 (VN/1194-M2e) against lethal challenges of M2e mutants of H5N1 virus strain A/Hong Kong/156/97 (HK/156) and a novel H7N9 virus, because there are 3 or 5 amino acid differences between VN/1194-M2e and HK/156-M2e or VN/1194-M2e and H7N9-M2e. The results showed that the vaccination of VN/1194-M2e did not induce high level of cross-reactive antibodies against HK/156-M2e and just provided poor cross-protection against lethal challenge of HK/156 virus. In contrast, VN/1194-M2e vaccination induced high level of cross-reactive antibodies against H7N9-M2e. Consistently, the vaccination provided good cross-protection against lethal challenge of H7N9 virus. These results strongly suggested that some mutations in M2e, such as mutations at positions 10, 14 and 16 which found in HK/156 M2e, might affect the M2e vaccine efficacy, but some others, such as five mutations found in H7N9-M2e, might not be critical for the M2e immunogenicity. This study then investigated the relationship between the M2e immunogenicity and amino acid mutations of the M2e. Beside VN/1194-M2e (P0), we synthesized additional 10 M2e mutant peptides which contain different single or multiple mutations. The 3D structures of these M2e peptides were predicted and analyzed. The prediction results showed that group 1 peptides (P0, P10, P14, P16, P18, P20 and P18-20) exhibited either irregular structures or loose hairpin structures which might associate with well exposure of antigenic epitope, whereas group 2 peptides (P10-14, P10-16, P14-16 and P10-14-16) formed tight hairpin structures in which antigenic epitope might bury inside their own secondary structure. Vaccination efficacies of these M2e peptides were evaluated in mice for antibody responses and cross-protection against lethal challenge of VN/1194 and HK/156 viruses. Our results showed that vaccinations of group 1 peptides induced high levels of cross-reactive antibodies against VN/1194-M2e and good cross-protection against lethal challenge of VN/1194 virus. However, vaccinations of group 2 peptides vaccinations induced significantly lower VN/1194-M2e antibody responses and poor cross-protection against lethal challenge of VN/119 virus. Furthermore, both group 1 and group 2 peptides could just induce low levels of cross-reactive antibodies against HK/156-M2e and poor protection against lethal challenge of HK/156 virus. Although H5N1-M2e tetrameric peptide has been previously shown to protect mice from lethal challenges by different subtypes/strains of influenza virus, this study has shown that certain amino acid variations in M2e could weaken M2e immunogenicity but some others might not. The different secondary structures of M2es may probably associate with their immunogenicity. Our findings have provided valuable information for the development of