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Genetics of Influenza Viruses

Genetics of Influenza Viruses PDF Author: P. Palese
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783709187081
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 360

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Book Description
With the advent of genetic engineering methods and improved biochemical tech niques, much has been learned about the replication of influenza viruses, their structure and their epidemiology. It appears that the time is ripe to review these efforts and to provide a molecular perspective of influenza virology. It is hoped that this book will stimulate our thinking, help us in designing new experiments, and possibly show avenues leading to the control of the diseases associated with influenza viruses. Peter Palese, New York, N. Y. August 1983 David W. Kingsbury, Memphis, Tenn. Contents List of Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV 1. The Evolution of Influenza Viral Genetics - A Perspective. By E. D. Kilbourne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. The Development of Modern Influenza Viral Genetics 2 A. Early Evidence of Genetic Variation in the Laboratory 2 B. Application of Formal Genetic Techniques to Studies of Influenza Virus . . . . . . . 3 C. Genetic Markers. . . . . . . . . 3 D. Development of Plaquing Systems. . . 4 E. The Use of Conditional Lethal Mutants 5 F. New Approaches in Influenza Virus Genetics. 6 1. The Biochemical Identification of Viral Gene Products in the Unambiguous Definition of Viral Inheritance . . . 6 2. Mapping of the Influenza Virus Genome by Correlative Physico-Chemical and Biological Techniques. . . . . . 7 3. The Application of Molecular Biological Techniques to the Study of Viral Genetic Variation. . . . . . . . . 8 4. Oligonucleotide Mapping of Viral RNA's . . . . . . . 8 5. Contribution of Protein and RNA Sequencing to Influenza Viral Genetics-Intragenic Mapping . . . . . . . 8 III. Viral Genetics and the Understanding of Viral Virulence and Pathogenicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Genetics of Influenza Viruses

Genetics of Influenza Viruses PDF Author: P. Palese
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783709187081
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 360

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Book Description
With the advent of genetic engineering methods and improved biochemical tech niques, much has been learned about the replication of influenza viruses, their structure and their epidemiology. It appears that the time is ripe to review these efforts and to provide a molecular perspective of influenza virology. It is hoped that this book will stimulate our thinking, help us in designing new experiments, and possibly show avenues leading to the control of the diseases associated with influenza viruses. Peter Palese, New York, N. Y. August 1983 David W. Kingsbury, Memphis, Tenn. Contents List of Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV 1. The Evolution of Influenza Viral Genetics - A Perspective. By E. D. Kilbourne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. The Development of Modern Influenza Viral Genetics 2 A. Early Evidence of Genetic Variation in the Laboratory 2 B. Application of Formal Genetic Techniques to Studies of Influenza Virus . . . . . . . 3 C. Genetic Markers. . . . . . . . . 3 D. Development of Plaquing Systems. . . 4 E. The Use of Conditional Lethal Mutants 5 F. New Approaches in Influenza Virus Genetics. 6 1. The Biochemical Identification of Viral Gene Products in the Unambiguous Definition of Viral Inheritance . . . 6 2. Mapping of the Influenza Virus Genome by Correlative Physico-Chemical and Biological Techniques. . . . . . 7 3. The Application of Molecular Biological Techniques to the Study of Viral Genetic Variation. . . . . . . . . 8 4. Oligonucleotide Mapping of Viral RNA's . . . . . . . 8 5. Contribution of Protein and RNA Sequencing to Influenza Viral Genetics-Intragenic Mapping . . . . . . . 8 III. Viral Genetics and the Understanding of Viral Virulence and Pathogenicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Genetic Variation of Avian Influenza Viruses Relationship to Their Virulence and Epidemiology

Genetic Variation of Avian Influenza Viruses Relationship to Their Virulence and Epidemiology PDF Author: Jill Banks
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Avian influenza
Languages : en
Pages :

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Genetic Diversity of RNA Viruses

Genetic Diversity of RNA Viruses PDF Author: John J. Holland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642770118
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 226

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Book Description
Many RNA viruses have been known for decades to be genetically and biologically quite variable. Some well-known examples are influenza viruses, foot and mouth disease viruses, and Newcastle disease virus. During the past decade, it has become clear that most, it not all. , RNA viruses (riboviruses and retroviruses) are much more mutable than was recognized previously, and that this great mutability generates extremely complex populations consisting of indeterminate mixtures of related variants (Le. , "mutant swarms" or "quasispecies" populations). This is also true of DNA viruses (such as hepatitis DNA genomes via RNA transcripts B virus) which replicate their that are reverse-transcribed back to DNA. This hypermutability of RNA replicons provides great biological adaptability for RNA virus genomes. It also allows (but does not necessitate) RNA viruses, so that they can extremely rapid evolution of evolve over a million times more quickly than their eukaryotic DNA-based hosts. The genetics of RNA replicons is so unusual (and often counterintuitive) that it has many important biological conse quences which are neither readily apparent nor widely under stood. Failure to understand the distinctive aspects of RNA genetics frequently generates confusion and controversy and can adversely impact vaccine and antiviral drug programs and other applications of medical virology. The 14 chapters in this volume describe advances in a number of significant areas of RNA virus genetics and evolution.

Influenza Virus Genetics

Influenza Virus Genetics PDF Author: C. Scholtissek
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 37

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Flu

Flu PDF Author: Applied Research Applied Research Press
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781519229656
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 220

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Book Description
This article collection reviews key research on the flu virus (influenza symptoms, medical genetics and epidemiology) and includes 21 open access research papers by various authors. Topics include: Clinical prediction rules combining signs, symptoms and epidemiological context to distinguish influenza from influenza-like illnesses in primary care: a cross sectional study; Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos; Differing clinical characteristics between influenza strains among young healthy adults in the tropics; A cross-sectional analysis of symptom severity in adults with influenza and other acute respiratory illness in the outpatient setting; Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa, 2010-2011; Characterisation of a wild-type influenza (A/H1N1) virus strain as an experimental challenge agent in humans; New treatments for influenza; Use of simple clinical and laboratory predictors to differentiate influenza from dengue and other febrile illnesses in the emergency room; Evolutionary interactions between haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in avian influenza; Vaccination with hemagglutinin or neuraminidase DNA protects BALB/c mice against influenza virus infection in presence of maternal antibody; Molecular characterization of influenza viruses collected from young children in Uberlandia, Brazil - from 2001 to 2010; Positive selection on hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of H1N1 influenza viruses; Detailed genetic analysis of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein gene in human parainfluenza virus type 1 isolates from patients with acute respiratory infection between 2002 and 2009 in Yamagata prefecture, Japan; Critical assessment of influenza VLP production in Sf9 and HEK293 expression systems; Identification of critical residues of influenza neuraminidase in viral particle release; Cross-reactive human B cell and T cell epitopes between influenza A and B viruses; Highly conserved antigenic epitope regions of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes between 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza: vaccine considerations; Deletions of neuraminidase and resistance to oseltamivir may be a consequence of restricted receptor specificity in recent H3N2 influenza viruses; Amino acid substitutions in the neuraminidase protein of an H9N2 avian influenza virus affect its airborne transmission in chickens; Monoclonal antibodies targeting the synthetic peptide corresponding to the polybasic cleavage site on H5N1 influenza hemagglutinin; A universal monoclonal antibody protects against all influenza A and B viruses by targeting a highly conserved epitope in the viral neuraminidase.

IDENTIFICATION OF SUSCEPTIBILI

IDENTIFICATION OF SUSCEPTIBILI PDF Author: Zhongshan Cheng
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
ISBN: 9781361037096
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description
This dissertation, "Identification of Susceptibility Gene to Severe Influenza in Humans: an Integrated Study of Genetics, Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics" by Zhongshan, Cheng, 程中山, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) caused the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. In 2013, a novel avian influenza virus A(H7N9) was identified to cause human infection with case-fatality rate of over 30%. The possible host genetic determinants predisposing to human A(H7N9) influenza and severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza have been speculated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to investigate the genetic susceptibility to A(H7N9) influenza and severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. A bioinformatics pipeline, IndelLDplot, has been created to integrate genetic variants with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) data and publicly available genome-wide functional annotation data. IndelLDplot can be utilized to identify potentially functional variants in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with GWAS SNPs for further validation. Firstly, we demonstrated that four JAK2 SNPs including rs1887429, rs17425819, rs7850484 and rs7034539 were associated with the susceptibility to severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in 436 patients. Two potential functional variants rs59384377 and rs59679286, located in a putative enhancer can tag the two association SNPs rs17425819 and rs7850484. In reporter gene luciferase assay, these two variants could encode regulatory polymorphisms for the enhancer activity. Additionally, the involvement of JAK2 in the pathogenesis of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza was evidenced with the observation that JAK2 inhibition can attenuate the exuberant immune activation triggered by A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Thus, JAK2 is a novel host factor whose genetic variations may cause the diversified outcome in A(H1N1)pdm09 patients. Secondly, we conducted a GWAS to investigate the genetic susceptibility to human A(H7N9) influenza in 102 patients and 106 healthy controls. We applied an artificial imputation program to improve the association signals. We identified three variants of LGALS1 represented by three anchor SNPs rs13057866, rs4820294 and rs62236673 coupled with their partner SNPs. A previous study indicated that LGALS1 can bind to various subtypes of influenza A viruses, inhibiting viral infectivity and production. Our in-depth analysis indicated that the protective variants against A(H7N9) infection correlated to the significantly higher levels of LGALS1 expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines, human primary monocytes and lung tissues. Therefore, we conclude that functional variants of LGALS1 causing the expression variations contribute to the differential susceptibility to human A(H7N9) influenza. We further integrated the results of A(H1N1)pdm09 GWAS with a lung eQTL dataset. We demonstrated that the G allele of rs2070788, a higher-expression variant of TMPRSS2, was a risk variant to severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in 409 patients. A potentially functional SNP rs383510 in a putative regulatory region can tag rs2070788. Luciferase assay results showed that rs383510 may dictate the activity of the regulatory element. Due to the shared usage of TMPRSS2 for the activation of A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) viruses, we validated the genetic predispositions of rs2070788 and rs383510 to A(H7N9) influenza. Therefore, we demonstrate that genetic variants with higher TMPRSS2 expression confer higher risk to severe A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza and human A(H7N9) influenza. In summary, integrating the genetic as

ROLE OF A DISTINCT PA GENE FOR

ROLE OF A DISTINCT PA GENE FOR PDF Author: Kun Qin
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
ISBN: 9781360991627
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 202

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Book Description
This dissertation, "Role of a Distinct PA Gene for the Pathogenicity and Replication Properties of Avian H5N1 Influenza Virus in Mice" by Kun, Qin, 秦堃, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4327846 Subjects: Viruses - Reproduction Viral genetics Avian influenza A virus

Influenza Vaccines for the Future

Influenza Vaccines for the Future PDF Author: Rino Rappuoli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783034602792
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 446

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Book Description
The emergence of H5N1 avian influenza in 1997 and of the influenza A H1N1 of swine origin in 2009 calls for new, rapid and sustainable solutions for both seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses. During the last ten years, science and technology have made enormous progress, and we are now able to monitor in real time the genetics of viruses while they spread globally, to make more powerful vaccines using novel adjuvants, and to generate viruses in the laboratory using reverse genetics. This volume not only provides state-of-the-art information on the biology of influenza viruses and on influenza vaccines, but is also designed to be a resource to face the present H1N1 pandemic and to plan for long-term global and sustainable solutions.

Current Issues in Molecular Virology

Current Issues in Molecular Virology PDF Author: Victor Romanowski
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9535112074
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 296

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Book Description
This book is a collection of chapters dealing with examples of RNA and DNA viruses, and issues such as how these gene packages have learnt to take advantage of their hosts, molecular recognition events that hosts may use to counterattack the viruses, and how researchers have developed strategies to use viruses or their parts as tools for different purposes.

Genetics and Pathogenicity of Negative Strand Viruses

Genetics and Pathogenicity of Negative Strand Viruses PDF Author: Daniel Kolakofsky
Publisher: Elsevier Publishing Company
ISBN:
Category : Génétique virale - Congrès
Languages : en
Pages : 420

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