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Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses

Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Debi P. Nayak
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483274748
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 694

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Book Description
Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses documents the proceedings of ICN-UCLA symposium held in Salt Lake City, Utah, 8-13 March 1981. The symposium brought together people from different disciplines working with the common objective of reducing the ravages of influenza and to expose them to the totality of the problem of influenza. The papers presented at the meeting included nearly all major aspects of influenza in which important advances are being made. Because of recombinant DNA technology and rapid DNA sequencing, a number of genes of influenza virus from a number of strains have been either completely or partially sequenced. Among these, the gene coding for hemagglutinin (HA) has been most intensively studied and the HA of one or more strains from each subtype (H1, H2, H3) has been completely sequenced. Other topics discussed include the question of drift and shift at the genomic level; the role of the capped host mRNA is the process of initiation of transcription; and the regulation of viral transcription. This volume also includes papers presented by the speakers of the plenary sessions and that of keynote speaker, Sir Charles Stuart-Harris as well as the selected papers presented in the poster sessions.

Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses

Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Debi P. Nayak
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483274748
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 694

View

Book Description
Genetic Variation Among Influenza Viruses documents the proceedings of ICN-UCLA symposium held in Salt Lake City, Utah, 8-13 March 1981. The symposium brought together people from different disciplines working with the common objective of reducing the ravages of influenza and to expose them to the totality of the problem of influenza. The papers presented at the meeting included nearly all major aspects of influenza in which important advances are being made. Because of recombinant DNA technology and rapid DNA sequencing, a number of genes of influenza virus from a number of strains have been either completely or partially sequenced. Among these, the gene coding for hemagglutinin (HA) has been most intensively studied and the HA of one or more strains from each subtype (H1, H2, H3) has been completely sequenced. Other topics discussed include the question of drift and shift at the genomic level; the role of the capped host mRNA is the process of initiation of transcription; and the regulation of viral transcription. This volume also includes papers presented by the speakers of the plenary sessions and that of keynote speaker, Sir Charles Stuart-Harris as well as the selected papers presented in the poster sessions.

Genetics of Influenza Viruses

Genetics of Influenza Viruses PDF Author: P. Palese
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783709187081
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 360

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Book Description
With the advent of genetic engineering methods and improved biochemical tech niques, much has been learned about the replication of influenza viruses, their structure and their epidemiology. It appears that the time is ripe to review these efforts and to provide a molecular perspective of influenza virology. It is hoped that this book will stimulate our thinking, help us in designing new experiments, and possibly show avenues leading to the control of the diseases associated with influenza viruses. Peter Palese, New York, N. Y. August 1983 David W. Kingsbury, Memphis, Tenn. Contents List of Contributors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV 1. The Evolution of Influenza Viral Genetics - A Perspective. By E. D. Kilbourne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. The Development of Modern Influenza Viral Genetics 2 A. Early Evidence of Genetic Variation in the Laboratory 2 B. Application of Formal Genetic Techniques to Studies of Influenza Virus . . . . . . . 3 C. Genetic Markers. . . . . . . . . 3 D. Development of Plaquing Systems. . . 4 E. The Use of Conditional Lethal Mutants 5 F. New Approaches in Influenza Virus Genetics. 6 1. The Biochemical Identification of Viral Gene Products in the Unambiguous Definition of Viral Inheritance . . . 6 2. Mapping of the Influenza Virus Genome by Correlative Physico-Chemical and Biological Techniques. . . . . . 7 3. The Application of Molecular Biological Techniques to the Study of Viral Genetic Variation. . . . . . . . . 8 4. Oligonucleotide Mapping of Viral RNA's . . . . . . . 8 5. Contribution of Protein and RNA Sequencing to Influenza Viral Genetics-Intragenic Mapping . . . . . . . 8 III. Viral Genetics and the Understanding of Viral Virulence and Pathogenicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Genetic Variation of Avian Influenza Viruses Relationship to Their Virulence and Epidemiology

Genetic Variation of Avian Influenza Viruses Relationship to Their Virulence and Epidemiology PDF Author: Jill Banks
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Avian influenza
Languages : en
Pages :

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Antigenic and Genetic Variation Among Equine H3N8 Influenza A Viruses

Antigenic and Genetic Variation Among Equine H3N8 Influenza A Viruses PDF Author: Janet Mary Daly
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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The Influenza Viruses

The Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Robert M Krug
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781461308126
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 452

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Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses PDF Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080564968
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 560

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Book Description
New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Viruses

Viruses PDF Author: Michael G. Cordingley
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674978609
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 384

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Book Description
While viruses—the world’s most abundant biological entities—are not technically alive, they invade, replicate, and evolve within living cells. Michael Cordingley goes beyond our familiarity with infections to show how viruses spur evolutionary change in their hosts and shape global ecosystems, from ocean photosynthesis to drug-resistant bacteria.

Genetic Diversity of RNA Viruses

Genetic Diversity of RNA Viruses PDF Author: John J. Holland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642770118
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 226

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Book Description
Many RNA viruses have been known for decades to be genetically and biologically quite variable. Some well-known examples are influenza viruses, foot and mouth disease viruses, and Newcastle disease virus. During the past decade, it has become clear that most, it not all. , RNA viruses (riboviruses and retroviruses) are much more mutable than was recognized previously, and that this great mutability generates extremely complex populations consisting of indeterminate mixtures of related variants (Le. , "mutant swarms" or "quasispecies" populations). This is also true of DNA viruses (such as hepatitis DNA genomes via RNA transcripts B virus) which replicate their that are reverse-transcribed back to DNA. This hypermutability of RNA replicons provides great biological adaptability for RNA virus genomes. It also allows (but does not necessitate) RNA viruses, so that they can extremely rapid evolution of evolve over a million times more quickly than their eukaryotic DNA-based hosts. The genetics of RNA replicons is so unusual (and often counterintuitive) that it has many important biological conse quences which are neither readily apparent nor widely under stood. Failure to understand the distinctive aspects of RNA genetics frequently generates confusion and controversy and can adversely impact vaccine and antiviral drug programs and other applications of medical virology. The 14 chapters in this volume describe advances in a number of significant areas of RNA virus genetics and evolution.

Within-host Evolution of Emerging and Re-emerging Influenza A Viruses

Within-host Evolution of Emerging and Re-emerging Influenza A Viruses PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 166

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Occasionally, influenza viruses emerge unpredictably from their natural avian reservoirs, or through an intermediate species, in human populations. Once in a human, avian influenza viruses can rapidly adapt to their new environments, which can result in efficient replication in and transmission between susceptible hosts. Sustained human-to-human transmission of "mammalian" adapted influenza viruses can result in global pandemic outbreaks. As humans build up immunity against pandemic viruses, the virus can antigenically evolve allowing for seasonal "re-emergence." Consequently, seasonal vaccines must be reformulated annually and no current vaccine generates broad enough immunity to protect against all potentially emerging pandemic viruses. Due to error-prone genome replication, influenza viruses exist within infected hosts as a diverse collection of viral variants often referred to as a "quasispecies." Within-host genetic variability allows influenza viruses to rapidly adapt to changing selective pressures. As part of strong interdisciplinary collaborations, our goal was to elucidate the virological and evolutionary mechanisms of influenza emergence and re-emergence in humans. Throughout these collaborative studies, my role was to develop novel experimental and computational approaches to accurately assess influenza within-host genetic variability directly from infected hosts. This contribution resulted in the development of an amplicon-based shotgun deep sequencing approach capable of detecting influenza genetic variation below the detection limit of traditional surveillance approaches. Using the combined power of deep sequencing, bioinformatics and virological characterization, we revealed previously unappreciated features of influenza biology regarding the role of low-frequency influenza variants during host adaptation and transmission in mammals.

Studies on the Antigenic and Genetic Variation of the Equine-1 Influenza Viruses

Studies on the Antigenic and Genetic Variation of the Equine-1 Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Carl Anthony Gibson
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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