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Global Spread of the Avian Flu

Global Spread of the Avian Flu PDF Author: Marilyn R. Bethe
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600210112
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 148

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Book Description
Avian influenza, or 'bird flu', is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two main forms of disease, distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The so-called "low pathogenic" form commonly causes only mild symptoms (ruffled feathers, a drop in egg production) and may easily go undetected. The highly pathogenic form is far more dramatic. It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often within 48 hours. A pandemic can start when three conditions have been met: a new influenza virus subtype emerges; it infects humans, causing serious illness; and it spreads easily and sustainably among humans. The H5N1 virus amply meets the first two conditions: it is a new virus for humans (H5N1 viruses have never circulated widely among people), and it has infected more than 100 humans, killing over half of them. No one will have immunity should an H5N1-like pandemic virus emerge. All prerequisites for the start of a pandemic have therefore been met save one: the establishment of efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus. The risk that the H5N1 virus will acquire this ability will persist as long as opportunities for human infections occur. These opportunities, in turn, will persist as long as the virus continues to circulate in birds, and this situation could endure for some years to come.

Global Spread of the Avian Flu

Global Spread of the Avian Flu PDF Author: Marilyn R. Bethe
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781600210112
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 148

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Book Description
Avian influenza, or 'bird flu', is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans. In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two main forms of disease, distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The so-called "low pathogenic" form commonly causes only mild symptoms (ruffled feathers, a drop in egg production) and may easily go undetected. The highly pathogenic form is far more dramatic. It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often within 48 hours. A pandemic can start when three conditions have been met: a new influenza virus subtype emerges; it infects humans, causing serious illness; and it spreads easily and sustainably among humans. The H5N1 virus amply meets the first two conditions: it is a new virus for humans (H5N1 viruses have never circulated widely among people), and it has infected more than 100 humans, killing over half of them. No one will have immunity should an H5N1-like pandemic virus emerge. All prerequisites for the start of a pandemic have therefore been met save one: the establishment of efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus. The risk that the H5N1 virus will acquire this ability will persist as long as opportunities for human infections occur. These opportunities, in turn, will persist as long as the virus continues to circulate in birds, and this situation could endure for some years to come.

Avian Influenza Virus

Avian Influenza Virus PDF Author: Erica Spackman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1588299392
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 142

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Book Description
With the growing global fear of a major pandemic, avian influenza (AI) virus research has greatly increased in importance. In Avian Influenza Virus, an expert team of researchers and diagnosticians examine the fundamental, yet essential, virological methods for AI virus research and diagnostics as well as some of the newest molecular procedures currently used for basic and applied research. They present exciting, cutting-edge new methods that focus both on studying the virus itself and on work with avian hosts, an area greatly lacking in research.

Avian Influenza

Avian Influenza PDF Author: Kyle M. Taylor
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 9781624174155
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 93

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Book Description
Avian influenza or bird flu refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds". Of the greatest concern is the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Most human contractions of the avian flu are a result of either handling dead infected birds or from contact with infected fluids. In this book, the authors discuss the molecular evolution, outbreaks and prevention/control of avian influenza. Topics include the risk assessment of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infections through water; biosecurity measures against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in free-range flocks and commercial poultry in developing countries; outbreak control and viral evolution of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Thailand; and the changes in perceptions and attitudes that were identified in a follow-up survey conducted when bird flu was not the focus on widespread media coverage in Australia.

Avian Influenza, or "Bird Flu": What You Need to Know

Avian Influenza, or Author:
Publisher: Am Cncl on Science, Health
ISBN:
Category : Avian influenza
Languages : en
Pages : 19

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Book Description
Looks at the H5N1 strain of bird flu and how it is effecting the world bird population and what its potential impact will be on the world human population should it become easily transmittable.

Avian Influenza

Avian Influenza PDF Author: David E. Swayne
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0813818664
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 628

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Book Description
Avian Influenza provides the first comprehensive guide covering the full spectrum of this complex and increasingly high-profile disease, its history, and its treatment and control. All aspects of avian influenza are dealt with in depth, systematically covering biology, virology, diagnostics, ecology, epidemiology, clinical medicine, and the control. The book fuses coverage of the latest discoveries in the basic sciences with a practical approach to dealing with the disease in a clinical setting, and providing instruction and guidance for veterinarians and government animal health officials encountering this disease in the field. Avian Influenza provides the reader with a global perspective, bringing together chapters written by leading animal health researchers and veterinarians with significant experience working with this disease. Providing a summary and synthesis of important data and research on this virus, its impact on both wild and domesticated birds, and approaches to controlling the spread of the disease, Avian Influenza will be an invaluable resource for all veterinarians, scientists, animal health professionals, and public health officials dealing with this virus. Covers full range of topics within avian influenza in one comprehensive and authoritative text Provides a summarization of peer-reviewed and empirical data on avian influenza viruses, the infection and diseases they cause Discusses strategies used in control of the disease Leading experts are drawn together to provide an international and multi-disciplinary perspective Fuses latest developments in basic scientific research with practical guidance on management of the disease

Bird Flu

Bird Flu PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: 9814478008
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans

Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans PDF Author: Sanjay Kapoor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319055127
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 222

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Book Description
This book provides salient information on all aspects of influenza/flu viruses affecting animals and humans. It specifically reviews the properties and replication of influenza viruses; their evolution and emergence; epidemiology; role of migratory birds in disease transmission; clinical signs in humans, animals and poultry; pathogenesis and pathogenicity; public health importance and potential threats; diagnosis; prevention and control measures; and pandemic preparedness. Influenza/flu viruses evolve continuously and jump species causing epidemics as well as pandemics in both human and animals. During the past 150 years, various strains of influenza virus like the Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, bird flu and swine flu were responsible for high mortality in humans as well as birds. High mutation rates, antigenic shifts, drifts, reassortment phenomena, and the development of antiviral drug resistance all contribute to ineffective chemotherapy and vaccines against influenza viruses. Due to their devastating nature, high zoonotic implications and high mortality in humans and poultry, they have a severe impact on the socioeconomic status of countries. Disease awareness, rapid and accurate diagnosis, surveillance, strict biosecurity, timely adoption of appropriate preventive and control measures and pandemic preparedness are crucial to help reduce virus transmission, thus reducing clinical cases, deaths and pandemic threats.

Epidemiology of Avian Influenza Viruses

Epidemiology of Avian Influenza Viruses PDF Author: Irene Iglesias
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889459942
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 133

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Book Description
Avian influenza is a highly contagious viral disease, characterized by intense circulation in the wild waterbird reservoirs, with periodical introductions into the domestic poultry sector. AI viruses have been the source of devastating economic losses in the poultry industry over the last three decades, and have become a major veterinary and public health concern due to their zoonotic potential. The most emblematic illustration of this impact has been the emergence of the HPAI H5N1 virus in southern China in the mid-1990s, followed by its continental spread across East and Southeast Asia, and the unprecedented epidemics recorded in 2003–2004. More recently (from 2014 to 2017), several subtypes of HPAI (including H5N1, H5N6, H5N8) emerged in East Asia and spread intercontinentally, stressing the crucial role of this geographical hotspot as a source of new HPAI subtypes. The international dimension and the difficulty to effectively control those epidemics highlight the need for a global approach to HPAI surveillance and a comprehensive knowledge on epidemiology and patterns of the disease. This Research Topic aims at contributing to fill this gap. It includes ten papers which supplement the knowledge of the epidemiology of AI and offer new approaches on control strategies in various regions of the world.

Avian Influenza

Avian Influenza PDF Author: Ian Scoones
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1849710961
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 261

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Book Description
Over the past decade, substantial resources have been spent on tackling avian influenza and building a global capacity for a pandemic response. The catastrophic costs of the 1918 influenza pandemic are well documented, and the swine flu pandemic of 2009-10 has raised the alarm yet again. Across the world, surveillance systems have been upgraded, stockpiles of antiviral drugs and influenza vaccines have been created, veterinary and public health systems have been improved and poultry production and marketing has been dramatically restructured. What are the lessons from this experience? And what does this suggest for the future? This book explores how virus genetics, ecology and epidemiology intersect with economic, political and policy processes in a variety of places - from Bangkok to Washington, to Jakarta, Cairo, Rome and London. It focuses on the interaction of the international and national responses - and in particular the experiences of Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. It asks how effective is the disease surveillance and response system - can it respond to a new pandemic threat? The comparative analysis reveals the challenges and limitations of a technocratic, centralised response, and the need to take seriously local contexts. Drawing from these experiences, the book concludes with a discussion of future prospects and challenges, examining in particular what a 'One World, One Health' approach - where approaches to animal, human and ecosystem health are integrated - would look like in practice. Published in association with the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC).

Avian Flu

Avian Flu PDF Author: Jeffrey N. Sfakianos
Publisher: Infobase Publishing
ISBN: 1438101333
Category : Avian influenza
Languages : en
Pages : 88

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Book Description
This continuing series explores different diseases to show the science behind how disease-causing organisms affect the body. Microorganisms have plagued humans since the beginning of time, causing debilitating diseases and even death. But how, exactly, do these microorganisms infect and cause disease? The books in this series examine various microbiological scourges that have affected humans as well as the steps that have been taken to identify, isolate, prevent, and eradicate them. Each title will outline the history and treatments of the diseases, highlighting how improvements in prevention and treatment techniques have affected the disease's impact on the world population. Also known as the bird flu, avian influenza is a disease that once infected only birds but has acquired the ability to infect humans with deadly results.